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处理器的存储子系统(二)– Cache

2011年1月13日 发表评论 阅读评论

趁着刚考完高性能,还能记得一点东西,赶快写些cache相关的,算是回应之前那篇关于存储概述的文章.

在现在的CPU里,Cache所占的晶体管数目都达到80%以上,所以设计一个高速度低功耗的Cache很重要。

具体见下表(片内RAM主要就是指Cache,表引自老大的ppt):

Processor % Area (­cost) %Transistors(­power)
Alpha 21164 37% 77%
StrongArm SA110 61% 94%
Pentium Pro 64% 88%

首先,Cache的作用,这个大家都知道,就是为了加快访存速度,尽量能将CPU喂得饱一点。

其次,Cache的内容,这个大家也都知道,一般就是tag和数据,需要注意的是,数据一般不会是只有一个字节,一般都有32个字节或以上,这些所有数据组成一个Cache行(Cache Line,有时译作Cache块),这时候会有一个offset的概念,就是指在Cache Line内的偏移量。

再次,Cache的相连方式,有全相连,组相连,直接相连,全相连Cache利用率最高,但是,由于Tag位数很多,并且需要全比较,硬件复杂,功耗也高,基本没用。而直接相连Cache利用率太低了,所以几乎不用。一般只用组相连,并且当组数大于8时,增加组数利用率提高不了多少。至于具体的相连方式,随便翻本书,讲的详细的很,不再赘述。

还有一些关于Cache的就是发生Cache Miss时的处理策略,比如说替换算法,写策略(比如写穿透,写分配),但这些东西也是很容易找到的,本文也不赘述,下面重点讲讲设计一个高速度低功耗的Cache系统的主要技术.其实提高速度和减少功耗往往也不一定是矛盾的,某种方法对这两方面都有提高。

1. 提高Cache速度方面的设计技术

主要有增大Cache容量,增大块大小(可能会增加伪共享),增加相连度等方法,但这些都比较容易理解。下面主要讲一下现代处理器设计里面的常用到的虚地址Cache。

一般来说,Cache里面的地址索引都是用物理地址索引,不会用虚地址索引,但这就会导致一个问题,由于程序里面所用到的地址都是虚地址,因此,这些地址需要先进行转化,转化成物理地址(后面关于TLB的文章会讲到,这就是页表),才能用来索引访问Cache,这就导致了访问Cache的时间增加了转化时间。那有没有办法把这些转化时间减去呢,答案是有,那就是虚地址Cache,实地址和虚地址Cache的比较如下图:


但是,用虚地址索引会导致一个问题,那就是两个进程的虚地址可能是一样的,而其物理地址不一样,这就会导致一个“错误共享”问题。解决这个问题的一个办法就是每次切换进程都刷一次Cache,但这会增加Cache冷失效,导致很高的代价。另一个方法是在Cache Line 上加一个进程id号的域,这会增加Cache面积,尤其是进程号的取值可以很大的时候。

还有一个问题就是别名问题,和“错误共享”相反,这个问题是,本来需要共享的(比如为了进程中通信),但是由于两个进程对应同一物理地址的虚拟地址不一样,导致共享不成功。解决这一问题的方法是虚索引实Tag技术(Virtually indexed, physically tagged, VIPT),即在用Index从cache中读Tag的同时,进行虚实地址转换,可以使用物理地址做tag来比较确定选用索引出来的数据。但这会导致一个问题,就是当页大小(Page size)小于一个Cache组大小的时候,无法保证虚索引和实索引的一致性,此时需要用到也着色技术(Page coloring),这需要操作系统支持。具体如下图:

2. 降低Cache功耗方面的设计

这可以从两方面考虑,一方面是降低失效,可以有Victim Cache技术,硬件预取技术等。其中Victim Cache是在原来的Cache旁加一个小的Buffer(叫做Victim Cache),当换出来的块可以先放到Victim Cache(Victim Cache一般采用全相连),这样的话,下次用到可以直接在此取,不用去主存取,降低了Cache容量缺失率,减少时间的同时也降低了功耗。预取就是当访存总线空闲的时候,把可能用到的数据先取到Cache.

另外一个比较重要的技术就是路预测,比如对于8路组相连的Cache,index索引后会有八个结果,一般情况下需要将Tag和这八个结果一一比较,会消耗比较多的功耗。路预测就是根据局部性原理,猜测会用那路,这样只和那一路比较,只有比较失败的时候才和其他的比较。当预测准确率较高时,可以大大减少比较次数,降低功耗。



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  49. 2019年2月2日14:02 | #49

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  56. 2019年2月6日19:44 | #56

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  61. 2019年2月9日17:00 | #61

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  62. 2019年2月10日01:01 | #62

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  64. 2019年2月16日12:14 | #64

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