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漫谈云计算

2011年5月21日 发表评论 阅读评论

原来计划每周五晚上都写一两篇日志的,算是对当周关注的东西的一些总结。以便若干年后,回想起来,能大概知道我曾经都学过什么,思考过什么。也便若干年后,看曾经的自己是如何的幼稚,肤浅,也许会为自己讶然一笑。可是这周五,想了半天也没想到该写些什么,这周前几天改模拟器,改得很郁闷,后面为实验室的工程做验证,倒还好。不过总体感觉什么都没做,什么也没学,或者说什么都没做成,感觉虚度了,所以也就感觉写不出什么东西来。但是,一想到,好不容易有个好习惯,得坚持,自己最缺的就是执行力,我必须写点东西,于是就把前一阵看过的关于云计算的一些东西在这扯扯,算是凑数。下面进入正题:

云计算Cloud computing),是一种基于互联网的计算方式,通过这种方式,共享的软硬件资源和信息可以按需提供给计算机和其他设备。狭义云计算指IT基础设施的交付和使用模式,指通过网络以按需、易扩展的方式获得所需资源;广义云计算指服务的交付和使用模式,指通过网络以按需、易扩展的方式获得所需服务。(From 维基百科和百度百科)。

云计算该宁最早可以追溯到1983年太阳公司(Sun Microsystems,这是我最敬佩的一个计算机企业,只可惜她最后被我不敬佩的Oracle收购了)提出来的,当时他们提出“网络是电脑”(“The Network is the Computer”)的概念,算是云计算的雏形。

而云计算最早真正被市场关注,商业化则是到了2006年3月,亚马逊(Amazon)推出了弹性计算云(Elastic Computing Cloud,EC2)服务。其实其本质和之前的主机服务是一样的,不一样的是,他的收费方式,他是按你使用的资源收费的。

同年8月9日,google CEO Eric Schmidt在搜索引擎大会上首次提出了云计算(Cloud Computing)的概念。2006年google还发布了其第一个云产品,google apps,包括在一个域名下集成google mail,google calendar,以及 google talk等套件。随后2008年推出了自家的云计算服务,Google App Engine,简称GAE(本博客就是搭建在GAE上的)。

云计算从提供的资源类型的抽象层次,以及具体软硬件资源对用户的可见性,分为三层,即:云设备,云平台,云软件,英文分别简称为IaaS,PaaS,以及SaaS。

  1. 第一类是设备即服务(Infrastructure as a Service,IaaS),以亚马逊的EC2为代表,其实这基本上就是主机出租,整个虚拟机都是对用户可见的,用户具有root权限,整个计算机环境用户都可以配置,和传统不同的是,其付费方式的创新,它是通过按使用计费的;
  2. 第二类是平台即服务(PlatformasaService,PaaS),以google appengine为代表,主要是提供一个架构(现在只支持python和java,最新版本已经支持google自家的Go语言),用户必须在该平台提供的api上开发程序(现在主要都是一些web程序)。
  3. 第三类是软件即服务(SoftwareasaService,SaaS),代表为google apps(包括google docs,google域名邮箱),软件都不用用户开发,直接用云端已经开发好的软件即可。另外,现在的Web App Store也许也算这类。
    个人感觉云计算(尤其是IaaS)本质是一个商业模式的创新,把之前粗粒度的出租计算资源(以前用户租用主机等必须租用很久,并且不是按使用计费的)变成了细粒度,变成了pay for use。从用户来说,降低了成本,这样中小企业可以没有自己的服务器,需要计算资源时临时使用云端资源即可。而从资源出租者来说,由于用户很多,而所有用户不可能同时都对某类资源具有很高的需求,这样的话,资源出租者就可以利用这个很大的调度池内调度,可以充分利用资源,实现双赢。
    另外,对于PaaS,还有个好处是,由于对硬件进行了抽象,进行了透明化处理,对开发者是件很好的事,这样对所有的开发者来讲,所面对的资源都是一样的,没有差异,而不必学习不同环境下的开发,比如说windows和linux,X86和ARM。开发出来的软件也不存在可重用的问题。
    而SaaS则更彻底,直接软件都开发好了,企业只需要使用这套软件就可以搭建一套企业内部的邮箱,日历,文档,甚至工程管理系统,而不需要自己买服务器,请管理员搭建维护。

现在的云计算除了以上几家外,很多厂商都在搞,比如最近Red Hat就推出了Openshift,Dotcloud推出了Dotcloud,国内的新浪推出了SAE,华为中兴阿里也在搞各自的云计算平台。

云计算通过虚拟化提供统一平台,灵活定制,动态可扩展性,高可靠性和安全性,高性价比等优点,但是也有一些缺点。那就是由于虚拟化技术所带来的效率和性能可能不是很高,对于很多应用并不适合云平台上面跑,这也就是解释了为什么现在大量使用的云计算都是云存储以及各类web应用,而一些传统的科学计算:生物医药研究,物理研究等计算还需要在超算中心完成。另外一个就是数据的安全问题,一个企业总是不太敢把自己的核心数据放到别家的服务器上。



本文作者: Sigma    在新浪微博关注SigmaSigmaWeibo    RSS订阅本博客
本文链接: http://www.sigma.me/2011/05/21/cloud-computing-survey.html
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  1. 2011年5月22日13:30 | #1

    华为的云计算能超过谷歌吗?

  2. 2011年5月21日21:58 | #2

    这图真丑

  3. 2011年5月22日09:11 | #3

    @Yan

    比你如何

  4. 2011年5月22日13:41 | #4

    这是一个云的世界 到处都是“云”

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