首页 > IT评论, 技术相关 > 近场通讯(Near Field Communication,NFC)简介,兼谈NFC在未来的机遇

近场通讯(Near Field Communication,NFC)简介,兼谈NFC在未来的机遇

2011年5月27日 发表评论 阅读评论

前几天google推出了手机支付谷歌钱包(google wallet),wallet的技术基础就是近场通讯(NFC)技术,因此我关注了下相关NFC技术,在这里记录一下以便备忘顺便分享。

近场通信(Near Field Communication,NFC),又称近距离无线通信,是一种短距离的高频无线通信技术,允许电子设备之间进行非接触式点对点数据传输(在十厘米内)交换数据。这个技术由免接触式射频识别(RFID)演变而来,并向下兼容RFID,最早由Philips、Nokia和Sony主推,主要可能用于手机等手持设备中。由于近场通讯具有天然的安全性,因此,NFC技术被认为在手机支付等领域具有很大的应用前景。

NFC技术简介

NFC工作模式

卡模式(Card emulation):这个模式其实就是相当于一张采用RFID技术的IC卡(个人理解)。可以替代现在大量的IC卡(包括信用卡)场合商场刷卡、公交卡、门禁管制,车票,门票等等。此种方式下,有一个极大的优点,那就是卡片通过非接触读卡器的 RF 域来供电,即便是寄主设备(如手机)没电也可以工作。

点对点模式(P2P mode):这个模式和红外差不多,可用于数据交换,只是传输距离比较短,传输建立速度快很多,传输速度也快些,功耗低(蓝牙也类似)。将两个具备 NFC 功能的设备链接,能实现数据点对点传输,如下载音乐,交换图片或者同步设备地址薄。因此通过NFC,多个设备如数字相机,PDA,计算机,手机之间,都可以交换资料或者服务。

读卡器模式(Reader/writer mode):作为非接触读卡器使用,比如从海报或者展览信息电子标签上读取相关信息。

NFC技术和蓝牙以及红外技术的比较

这三种技术的简要对比如下图:

  NFC 蓝牙 红外
网络类型 点对点 单点对多点 点对点
使用距离 <=0.1m <=10m <=1m
速度 106, 212, 424 kbps
规划速率可达868 kbps
721 kbps 115kbps

2.1 Mbps

~1.0 Mbps

建立时间 < 0.1s   6s 0.5s
安全性 具备, 硬件实现 具备,软件实现 不具备, 使用IRFM 时除外
通信模式 主动-主动/被动 主动-主动 主动-主动
成本

和另外两种技术相比,NFC具有天然的安全性,以及模式多(和IC卡相比也是如此)等优点。并且除了和RFID兼容外,还可能能够和蓝牙设备进行通讯。

NFC技术在未来的机遇

其实现在已经出现了很多基于NFC的应用,如移动(电子)票务,移动/手机支付(前述的google wallet),数据共享。

而在未来,尤其是方兴未艾的物联网和移动互联网则赋予了NFC技术更多的前景,比如:

  1. 各种电子标签识别:在物联网时代,任何物品都是数字化的,因此,很可能具有一个电子标签,这个电子标签可能就是一个RFID tag(类似取代现在的条形码,但成本高点,但高不了多少),只需要将NFC设备(如手机)靠近任何物品/商品。即可以通过网络获取物品的相关信息(对于有些商品,可以直接将信息存储在电子标签里,但可能会增加成本)。
  2. 点对点付款,这和普通的手机支付不同,点对点付款是指两个人直接用NFC设备(如手机)进行交易,比如A要给B n元钱,直接两个人连上就可以完成转账。(这个安全性很重要,而NFC的安全性貌似有很多保障,手机掉了通过远程手段锁定NFC功能)。
  3. 各种身份识别,也许未来,可能做到,一个带NFC的手机就能作为身份的证明(不过这也感觉很可怕)。
  4. 各种场合的信息记录,如医院,也许以后病例直接能够写到NFC设备中。

一句话,也许在未来,各种卡片,各种门票,火车票,各种证件都会消失,只剩下一个手机(就像手机曾经干掉MP3,MP4一样),而一个手机,里面几乎能干所有的事。



本文作者: Sigma    在新浪微博关注SigmaSigmaWeibo    RSS订阅本博客
本文链接: http://www.sigma.me/2011/05/27/nfc-intro-and-prospects.html
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  1. 2011年6月3日00:57 | #1

    话说你啥都研究啊,太牛了!

  2. 2011年5月29日01:01 | #2

    呵呵,无法想象 以后做啥就带个手机…

  3. 2011年5月31日07:39 | #3

    技术是越来越好了,生活也越来越方便了

  4. 2011年7月18日13:28 | #4

    最后一张图片配的不好。苹果至今没有宣布支持nfc.

  5. 2011年7月21日21:14 | #5

    我的American Express卡后面印了个图上的射频图标,不知何解。

  6. 2011年7月22日17:02 | #6

    囧,没有拿到银行卡看说明书的习惯。。。等下。。。为毛银行卡有说明书啊?

  7. 2011年7月23日18:15 | #7

    没找到。。。

  8. 2011年7月24日15:05 | #8

    也是哦。。。

  9. 2011年7月22日05:23 | #9

    @grapeot

    没有说明书?

  10. 2011年7月24日07:00 | #10

    @grapeot

    靠,新事物总有人介绍下吧,在中国,与众不同的不都要大吹特吹么

  11. 2011年7月23日03:58 | #11

    @grapeot

    网上总有卡各个区域的说明吧

  12. 2011年7月23日18:16 | #12

    你家银行卡上有各个区域的说明啊!不就卡号多少,持卡人之类的么。

  13. 2011年9月15日06:00 | #13

    诺基亚手机是最先支持NFC的

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  1. 2011年12月16日10:14 | #1
  2. 2019年1月22日14:08 | #2

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