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数据库理论之ACID和BASE的比较

2011年6月17日 发表评论 阅读评论

传统关系型数据库系统的事务都有ACID的属性,即原子性(Atomicity)、一致性(Consistency)、隔离性(Isolation,又称独立性)、持久性(Durability)。英文为:

  • Atomic: Everything in a transaction succeeds or the entire transaction is rolled back.
  • Consistent: A transaction cannot leave the database in an inconsistent state.
  • Isolated: Transactions cannot interfere with each other.
  • Durable: Completed transactions persist, even when servers restart etc.
  • 中译为:

  • 原子性: 整个事务中的所有操作,要么全部完成,要么全部不完成,不可能停滞在中间某个环节。事务在执行过程中发生错误,会被回滚(Rollback)到事务开始前的状态,就像这个事务从来没有执行过一样。
  • 一致性: 在事务开始之前和事务结束以后,数据库的完整性约束没有被破坏。
  • 隔离性: 两个事务的执行是互不干扰的,一个事务不可能看到其他事务运行时,中间某一时刻的数据。 两个事务不会发生交互。
  • 持久性: 在事务完成以后,该事务所对数据库所作的更改便持久的保存在数据库之中,并不会被回滚。
  • 在数据库系统中,事务的ACID属性保证了数据库的一致性,比如银行系统中,转账就是一个事务,从原账户扣除金额,以及向目标账户添加金额,这两个数据库操作的总和构成一个完整的逻辑过程,不可拆分,为原子,从而保证了整个系统中的总金额没有变化。

然而,这些ACID特性对于大型的分布式系统来说,适合高性能不兼容的。比如,你在网上书店买书,任何一个人买书这个过程都会锁住数据库直到买书行为彻底完成(否则书本库存数可能不一致),买书完成的那一瞬间,世界上所有的人都可以看到熟的库存减少了一本(这也意味着两个人不能同时买书)。这在小的网上书城也许可以运行的很好,可是对Amazon这种网上书城却并不是很好。

而对于Amazon这种系统,他也许会用cache系统,剩余的库存数也许是之前几秒甚至几个小时前的快照,而不是实时的库存数,这就舍弃了一致性。并且,Amazon可能也舍弃了独立性,当只剩下最后一本书时,也许它会允许两个人同时下单,宁愿最后给那个下单成功却没货的人道歉,而不是整个系统性能的下降。

其实,上面的思想是从Eric Brewer’s CAP 理论(详见我这篇文章)得到的启发,在CAP理论中:

在设计分布式Web服务中,通常需要考虑三个应用的属性:一致性、可用性以及分区宽容性。但是在实际的设计中,不可能这三方面同时做的很好。

由于CAP理论的存在,为了提高性能,出现了ACID的一种变种BASE:

  • Basic Availability:基本可用
  • Soft-state :软状态/柔性事务,可以理解为”无连接”的, 而 “Hard state” 是”面向连接”的
  • Eventual consistency:最终一致性,最终整个系统(时间和系统的要求有关)看到的数据是一致的。
  • 在BASE中,强调可用性的同时,引入了最终一致性这个概念,不像ACID,并不需要每个事务都是一致的,只需要整个系统经过一定时间后最终达到是一致的。比如Amazon的卖书系统,也许在卖的过程中,每个用户看到的库存数是不一样的,但最终买完后,库存数都为0。再比如SNS网络中,C更新状态,A也许可以1分钟才看到,而B甚至5分钟后才看到,但最终大家都可以看到这个更新。

有趣的是,ACID的意思是酸,而BASE却是碱的意思,因此这是一个对立的东西。其实,从本质上来讲,酸(ACID)强调的一致性(CAP中的C),而碱(BASE)强调是可用性(CAP中的A)。

 

database-acid-vs-base



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